- How are humans causing change on the Holderness coast?
- Why does mappleton threaten coastal erosion?
- Which is harder chalk or boulder clay?
- What is the difference between hard and soft engineering?
- Why is the Holderness coast so vulnerable to erosion?
- Why is the Holderness coast so important?
- Why does hornsea need protecting?
- When a cliff is eroded and moves backwards?
- How has the Holderness coast being managed?
- Where is the Holderness coast in England?
- What are the effects of erosion on the Holderness coast?
- Why is boulder clay easily eroded?
- What is terminal groyne syndrome?
- What causes coastal retreat?
- Is boulder clay unconsolidated?
How are humans causing change on the Holderness coast?
Man-made structures – groynes have been installed to stop long-shore drift.
This narrows unprotected beaches elsewhere even more.
Powerful waves – waves at Holderness travel long distances over the North Sea (so have a long fetch ) which means they will increase in energy..
Why does mappleton threaten coastal erosion?
Owing to the limited beach material waves reach the base of the cliffs even during neap tides. This has led to increased rates of erosion and an increase in slumping. Rates of erosion to the south of the defences at Mappleton have increased significantly since the construction of defences at Mappleton.
Which is harder chalk or boulder clay?
Boulder clay is structurally weak, and has little resistance to erosion. It produces sloping cliffs between 5 and 20metre high. Chalk surrounds the boulder clay. This is a much stronger rock but has eroded along fault lines and bedding planes forming structures like cliffs, caves, arches and stacks.
What is the difference between hard and soft engineering?
Soft engineering defines natural defences, typically considered inexpensive, long term and sustainable, whereas hard engineering represents artificial structures which are arguably short term, expensive and unsustainable solutions to coastal erosion.
Why is the Holderness coast so vulnerable to erosion?
The Holderness coastline is susceptible to erosion due to the long north-easterly fetch, allowing for powerful waves, and the softness of the geology that make up the cliffs.
Why is the Holderness coast so important?
The Holderness Coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the features associated with them. This is because the area contains ‘textbook’ examples of coastal erosion and deposition. The exposed chalk of Flamborough provides examples of erosion, features such as caves, arches and stacks.
Why does hornsea need protecting?
Hornsea (destructive waves breach defences) In Hornsea sand has accumulated where protection exists. This is because the groynes provide a barrier to sediment transportation. This has reduced erosion along the front of the town but increased rates are evident further south where the defences stop.
When a cliff is eroded and moves backwards?
Softer rock is eroded more quickly and erodes backwards to form bays (which may have beaches). The harder rocks are more resistant to erosion and jut out into the sea to form exposed headlands.
How has the Holderness coast being managed?
Management strategies Hornsea is protected by a sea wall, groynes and rock armour. Coastal management at Withersea has tried to make the beach wider by using groynes, and also uses a seawall to protect the coast. Mappleton is protected by rock groynes. Spurn Head is protected with groynes and rock armour.
Where is the Holderness coast in England?
The Holderness Coast is located on the east coast of England. It extends 61km from Flamborough in the north to Spurn Point in the south. The Holderness Coast is one of Europe’s fastest eroding coastlines. The average annual rate of erosion is around 2 metres per year.
What are the effects of erosion on the Holderness coast?
On average, the coastline of Holderness erodes at about 2m per year, mainly during storms and tidal surges. The impacts of coastal erosion on socio-economic aspects are: damage and loss of infrastructures, loss of property, loss of farmland, danger for tourism, damage to coastal protection.
Why is boulder clay easily eroded?
strong prevailing winds creating longshore drift that moves material south along the coastline. the cliffs which are made of a soft boulder clay, and will therefore erode quickly, especially when saturated.
What is terminal groyne syndrome?
Terminal groyne syndrome A poorly designed groyne (too long and not suited to the unique features of the coast) can also accelerate the erosion of the downdrift beach, which receives little or no sand from longshore drift.
What causes coastal retreat?
Coastal erosion may be caused by hydraulic action, abrasion, impact and corrosion by wind and water, and other forces, natural or unnatural. … The softer areas fill up with sediment eroded from hard areas, and rock formations are eroded away.
Is boulder clay unconsolidated?
Till, also known as boulder clay, is a mix of unconsolidated sediment with a range of grain sizes (clay-boulder). … Much boulder clay is of a bluish-grey until exposed to weather which causes a transformation to a brown colour.